They had for the first time conducted successful sieges against strongly held and fortified positions. , The individual Companion cavalry squadrons were usually deployed in a wedge formation, which facilitated both manoeuvrability and the shock of the charge. See more ideas about Miniatures, Macedonian, Ancient warfare.  The foot companions existed perhaps since the reign of Alexander I of Macedon, while Macedonian troops are accounted for in the history of Herodotus as subjects of the Persian Empire fighting the Greeks at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. , The armament of the phalangites is described in the Military Decree of Amphipolis. The linothorax could be reinforced with plate bronze or bronze scale elements. Polemarch was the rank that was assigned to the senior most Military Position official which meant warlord or war leader. Defences of a similar appearance composed of quilted textile are also described. The latest innovations in weapons and tactics were adopted and refined by Philip II, and he created a uniquely flexible and effective army.  Through extensive drilling and training, the Foot Companions were able to execute complex manoeuvres in absolute silence, an ability that was fascinating and unnerving to enemies.  The latter continued to serve after the reign of Alexander the Great and may have been of Asian origin. The Macedonian Army - Alexander the Great 1. A shoulder-piece was attached to the upper rear section of the girdle, this element was split into two wings which were pulled forward over the top of each shoulder and laced to the chest-section of the girdle. By the time of Xenophon, the Spartan army’s lochos consisted of 144 men. During a pitched battle, such as Gaugamela, they acted as guard for the right flank of the phalanx and as a flexible link between the phalanx and the Companion cavalry. , The prodromoi/sarissophoroi acted as scouts, reconnoitering in front of the army when it was on the march. Although it did not succeed in every battle, the army of Philip II was able to successfully adopt the military tactics of its enemies, such as the embolon (i.e. THE PARTHIAN ARMY . This, along with the sauroter, helped to make the point of balance as far towards the butt of the weapon as possible. The Illyrians broke after a fierce struggle, and three-quarters of Bardylis' army were slaughtered. It was easier to turn than a square formation because everyone followed the leader at the apex, "like a flight of cranes". The straight-bladed shortsword known as the xiphos (ξίφος) is depicted in works of art, and two types of single-edged cutting swords, the kopis and machaira, are shown in images and are mentioned in texts. It may have resembled the later manica armour used by Roman gladiators and cataphract cavalry. Philip took pains to keep them always under arms and either fighting or drilling. Light cavalry, such as the prodromoi (literal trans. Like the xyston, the sarissa was greatly tapered towards the point. He standardized equipment within formations organized according to their intended tactical function.  Apart from the prodromoi (in the sense of a single unit), other horsemen from subject or allied nations, filling various tactical roles and wielding a variety weapons, rounded out the cavalry. Philip had 600 cavalry, the Illyrians were concerned about being outflanked by the Macedonian cavalry and formed up in a hollow square. , Alexander the Great appears to have been one of the first generals to employ artillery on the open field of battle, rather than in a siege. Arrian, for instance, described squadrons from Bottiaea, Amphipolis, Apollonia and Anthemus. The prodromoi then assumed a purely battlefield role as shock cavalry. , Virtually all helmets in use in the Greek world of the period were constructed of bronze. The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC. 7.23.3-4). The Thessalian and Greek cavalry would have been armed similarly to the Companions.  The cutting swords are particularly associated with cavalry use, especially by Xenophon, but pictorial representations would suggest that all three sword types were used by cavalry and infantry without obvious distinction. Enomotiai were now drawn up deeper: three ranks of twelve men. , Philip II was also able to field archers, including mercenary Cretan archers and perhaps some native Macedonians. Between Susa and India a seventh taxis was created. Each file of 16 men, a lochos, was commanded by a lochagos who was in the front rank. Subcategories . , The dramatic change in the abilities of Greeks to operate against fortifications owed much to the development of effective artillery. They were often used to cover the right flank of the army in battle, being posted to the right of the Companion cavalry, a position of considerable honour. Initially only one squadron strong, they received 500 reinforcements in Egypt and a further 600 at Susa. This formation typically fought eight or sixteen men deep and in a frontage of thirty-two or sixteen men accordingly. They are cast in ranks for conventional basing . The word 'hypaspists' translates into English as 'shield-bearers'. , In 329 BC, Alexander, while in Sogdiana, created a 1,000 strong unit of horse archers that was recruited from various Iranian peoples. , There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the different classes of Macedonian soldier trained to use a variety of arms and equipment. The Alexander Mosaic suggests that officers of the heavy cavalry had rank badges in the form of laurel wreaths (perhaps painted or constructed from metal foil) on their helmets.  However, in regards to both the argyraspides and chalkaspides ('bronze shields'), Malcolm Errington asserts that "these titles were probably not functional, perhaps not even official. Many examples of helmets from the period have crest or plume-holders attached, so that a high degree of martial finery could be achieved by the wearing of imposing headpieces. However, the Macedonian king also innovated; he introduced the use of a much longer spear, the two-handed pike. It is unclear if the Thracians, Paeonians, and Illyrians fighting as javelin throwers, slingers, and archers serving in Macedonian armies from the reign of Philip II onward were conscripted as allies via a treaty or were simply hired mercenaries. , In conjunction with various forms of artillery, the Macedonians possessed the ability to build an effective array of siege engines. Cretan archers were famed for their powerful bows, firing arrows with large, heavy heads of cast bronze. Th… 34-35 (light cavalry weaponry), 45 (javelins), 47-48 (bows/archery). The commander of the syntagma theoretically fought at the head of the extreme far-right file. In battle, the Greek hoplites had a less active role than the Macedonian phalangites and hypaspists.
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